[A man in a grey suit and striped tie speaks into a microphone at a lectern branded State Library of Victoria]
Lt Col Neil C Smith: Sometime in the dark hours before dawn, the great convoy of ships slowed and stopped. All around the Aegean Sea was eerily still, like a mill pond. The men, excited, apprehensive, had slept on deck. They now peered out in the darkness at the ships closer in shore. There the first Australians were swarming down cargo nets into long boats to be towed to a beach at the place to be called Anzac Cove.
[Sepia photograph of ANZAC Cove, taken from above looking down a very steep hill to the water. The hill is covered with thick scrub. In the water are seven row boats. On top of the hill appears to be a soldier looking down onto the scene below. Men are wading through the water to the beach from one of the row boats. Onscreen text: Troops landing at ANZAC Cove 1915. A rare photograph taken by a Victorian man with the 2nd Infantry Brigade.]
Lt Col Smith: Above them, etched against the night sky, the craggy outline of the peninsular known as Gallipoli. It was Sunday the 25th of April 1915 and by the end of that first Anzac Day 98 years ago, someone would write ‘a more hellish Sunday one could not conceive’.
[Black and white photograph of Lieutenant Duncan Chapman with his company. On what appears to be a ship, 30 soldiers pose for a traditional group photograph. With onscreen text: The first to land at ANZAC Cove. Lieutenant Duncan Chapman (centre left). The first man to land of Gallipoli.]
Lt Col Smith: And by the time that the fighting ended eight months later, over 8000 Australians lay dead in the jumble of steep ridges and gullies above Anzac Cove and further south at Cape Helius. Thousands more were wounded.
[Sepia photograph looking down and across Victoria Gully, Gallipoli. A roads winds from left to right around the contours of the hill, which is covered in scrubby foliage and bare patches. A few men walk along the road. Onscreen text: Victoria Gully, Gallipoli about August 1915. Note white smoke from shell fire on centre high ground and troops moving along roads.]
Lt Col Smith: Many consider this campaign to be the genesis of the Anzac spirit and indeed the birthplace of our first Diggers. Of course the 25th of April is well established in Australia and New Zealand as Anzac Day. On that day many of us see it as almost a sacred duty to remember Gallipoli’s fallen and all Australians who’ve answered the call in times of war and conflict.
[Mustard- and grey-coloured drawing of a soldier. He stands on the edge of the waters of the Gulf of Saros as dark clouds gather behind him. His rifle is slung over one shoulder and his hands are cupped around his mouth as he shouts.]
Lt Col Smith: For many of us it is a time to remember especially our family and friends who have served. Perhaps times such as Anzac Day, Armistice Day, even Vietnam Veterans Day, prompt us to harden our resolve to better remember our military ancestors through research.
Ladies and gentlemen, I will now try to outline the wider history associated with our Anzac heritage and introduce you to some of the ordinary, sometimes elusive Australians who have played their part in forging our heritage. I will also touch on how best we can trace these men and women. It’s a tall order, let’s see how I fare.
We might remember people like the brothers Allen and Henry Cuvay from St Kilda who fell to Turkish sniper fire within days of each other near Lone Pine, Gallipoli, in August of 1915. And these lads, the Brumby boys, Harold, Livingstone and Robert; they were from Brighton.
[Sepia studio photograph of three men in the soldiers uniform of the Lighthorse. The solider in the middle has a large bushy moustache. The soldier on the right has a feather in his hat. With onscreen text: The Brumby Boys. The brothers Harold, Livingstone and Robert Brumby from Brighton Victoria.]
Lt Col Smith: In their uniform you can see that they were serving with the Lighthorse in the Middle East, they were more fortunate. They all came home – Robert even survived that famous last cavalry charge as they put it, the charge at Bersheba on the 31st of October 1917.
[Black and white photographic portrait of a soldier posing on a chair. His arm appears to be resting on a saddle. A large feather adorns his hat. With onscreen text: Bill Kenny. Sergeant William Kenny from Warren NSW. Served on Gallipoli with the 7th Light Horse Regiment.]
Lt Col Smith: This bloke, he’s described as a heavily built farmer in the newspapers. Bill Kenny, he came home as well and those newspapers, they refer to him in 1915 as ‘tossing the Turks aside’ with his bayonets as they counter-attacked on Gallipoli. Now there’d be few people in this room who were not aware of the fact that service records for most, if not all of these chaps, are readily available. We’ll talk about them more in a moment.
But continuing our journey through history, turning to the European theatre in World War I.
[Sepia photograph of a soldier in his slouch hat. With onscreen text: George Fenwick. 639 Private George Fenwick from Carlton Victoria. Died of wounds with the 5th Battalion].
Lt Col Smith: The unit war diary, rather than a service record, describes the Western Front battle where this man, George Fenwick from Carlton, slumped to the ground lifeless having been slain by German machine gun fire as he advanced on Mouquet farm in 1916. He had survived Gallipoli, but this time his luck ran out.
[Sepia photograph of a man standing in front of what appears to be a painting of a landscape with a mountain and stream. He is standing on dirt. One hand is on his waist and he wears no hat. With onscreen text: Private Eric Thompson, 13th Battalion. Captured by the Germans and wearing a black and brown Prisoner of War uniform.]
Lt Col Smith: Eric Thompson, a New South Wales boy. Eric Thompson got through the hell that was Pozières only to be taken as a Prisoner of War. His Red Cross wounded and missing bureau file tells you more. Note too whilst the slide is up there, the uniform. I could ask so many questions about photographs, and every now and then I see a photograph which throws me, as in this case with this fellow wearing uniform which had been provided by the Germans whilst he was a Prisoner of War.
[Sepia photograph of seven soldiers: three seated, four standing behind. All are hatless. One in the back row rests a hand on the shoulder of the soldier sitting in front of him. With onscreen text: HEROES ALL.]
Lt Col Smith: Another man, a 40-year-old printer, Horace White, was from Adelaide. His Roll of Honour circular from the Australian War Memorial tells us that he had already served in the Boer War about 17 years prior. Horace White chose to serve again in World War I. White was captured near Passchendaele in late 1917 and he died as a prisoner of the German in the camps.
The list of dead is seemingly endless and grew for four long years, til the 11th of November 1918 and even beyond. Now, before leaving World War I, let’s consider a moment the losses.
[Three sepia photographs of newspaper clippings. The middle photo shows an old man with a white beard. The two on either side are collages of head-and-shoulder photos of younger soldiers. The soldiers are numbered and their names are listed below. With onscreen text: Ten Descendants in Khaki. Mr Morgan from Lower North Adelaide with his son and nine grandsons on Active Service.]
Lt Col Smith: In World War I we lost 60,000 men and women dead, either in battle or through sickness. That’s one in five combatants, people in the field. Extrapolate that to today’s population and we would have lost well over 250,000 men and women. Consider the impact.
Of course, tracing those Australians who served in World War I usually is relatively easy. With few exceptions, the digitised service dossier for these men and women is readily available through RecordSearch and the National Archives of Australia. Most unit war diaries – as you will recall I mentioned they’re held by the Australian War Memorial – most of these have also been digitised so one no longer has to pore over the war diaries in Canberra to find out about your unit’s activities. But there are many other resources we can consider when researching World War I soldiers and sailors, let’s not forget them. Especially if you want that little extra detail and especially if your man or woman is proving to be elusive.
Now if you haven’t looked in your little goodies bag yet, do so later, but trust me for now because in there is a precis of my presentation this afternoon, so don’t bother sharpening your pencils and scribbling furiously because it’s all there for you to catch up with later. So for example I’ll just run through some of the resources now that one can look at when trying to identify further your World War I soldiers and sailors.
And these resources include administrative correspondence, embarkation rolls, shipping rolls, nominal rolls, repatriation department dossiers, pay and allotment cards, memorial scrolls, London Gazettes, and there’s heaps more: Commonwealth war graves, officer’s lists, Trove newspapers, war gratuity registers; not to mention the plethora of references one could consult to better understand military terminology, abbreviations and organisations.
Now Steve has already given us a good brief on what can be found here at the State Library, so I’ll say a little more about references such as regimental and unit histories. They can be a wonderful resource, particularly if you’re trying to find out exactly what your man or woman was up to on a day-by-day basis. And most of the major units, certainly in World War I, all have a regimental history. So for example we had 50 infantry battalions in World War I, every one of them has got a regimental history and I suspect that every one of them are held here at the State Library in Melbourne. And most of them too I should add are indexed, happily, and also have nominal rolls, because let me make this point now, when you’re searching for your fellow, once you’ve found a regimental number then you’re halfway there. Once you get that regimental number it’s very often the key.
Elusive Diggers, be aware also that in World War I about 50,000 Australians – men and women, Australian nationals – served under the flags of allied nations such as the United Kingdom, South Africa, Canada, United States, you name it. That’s an extra 50,000. So if your Digger is elusive, there is a possibility that he or she falls into that category.
Be aware too that over 15,000 Australians in World War I used some sort of alias – another trap for those who can’t find an elusive Digger.
But we have to consider other periods and conflicts as well, so to continue our brief historical journey we must also remember the horrors of World War II, on land as well as at sea and in the air.
[Sepia portrait photograph of a soldier, with onscreen text: Claude Wilson. Private Claude Wilson from Sale, Victoria. Sailed as a reinforcement for the 6th Division in the Middle East in 1941.]
Lt Col Smith: Claude Wilson. Claude enlisted early in the war and he sailed to the Middle East with the 6th Division. Many would be aware the 6th Division was the first division to be sent overseas, and went into action in North Africa and places like Derner and Benghazi and Tobruk, and then of course to the calamity that was Greece and Crete. So Claude sailed as a reinforcement with the 6th Division and he was one of five brothers from Sale who enlisted with that horrendous conflict, World War II.
[Sepia portrait photograph of a young soldier, with onscreen text: James Wilson. James Wilson from Sale, Victoria. Killed in Action at Passchendaele in late 1917. One of six brothers who all served.]
Lt Col Smith: A sixth brother, James, had been killed over 20 years earlier in the savage fighting around Passchendaele in 1917.
[Black and white photograph of four smiling military men: two wear caps, one wears a beret and the fourth a slouch hat. They stand with hands behind their backs. With onscreen text: World War Two Diggers. A group of Australian Military Force World War Two veterans wearing campaign ribbons, officer ‘pips’ or chevrons and shoulder patches.]
Lt Col Smith: World War II. The Middle East and the Mediterranean, the air war over Europe, the Atlantic convoys, North Africa, Syria, Greece, Crete: all were World War II campaigns which sapped the very heart and soul of Australian manhood.
We must not forget other areas overseas like Canada, Rhodesia, where so many of our young aviators died whilst training. Not to mention closer to home in Australia with bases such as Sale, particularly for the air force, the army’s Bonegilla camp up near Albury and a host of headquarters and units in this area here around Melbourne. Each World War II campaign was enriched with multitudes of stories of courage and sacrifice, all aching to be uncovered, all aching to be told and retold.
[Black and white portrait photograph of a grinning airman, with onscreen text: Fred Smith. Sergeant Navigator Fredrick C Smith. Accidentally killed in a flying accident in Western Australia in 1943.]
Lt Col Smith: Take Fred Smith. Fred Smith was a cocky from Western Australia. The young air force navigator, or observer, didn’t even make it overseas. He was killed with his pilot in a training accident east of Perth in 1943.
[Black and white photograph of a smiling airman, with onscreen text: Alan Duggleby. Flight Sergeant Alan Duggleby from East Oakleigh. Killed in Action over Germany with 102 (Halifax Bomber) Squadron, RAF 17th June 1944.]
Lt Col Smith: Another aviator, Allen Duggleby. This lad was from Oakleigh, he was riddled with shrapnel over Germany on a bombing run. Quite often people get confused, they say, ‘Oh yes, well my fellow was in the RAF, don’t you know.’ Mmm, no, well usually he wasn’t in the RAF. Like this chap, he was a member of the Royal Australian Air Force attached, with about 10,000 other Australian aircrew, to the Royal Air Force. But he’s still RAAF and his records are here, although there are records in London as well.
[Black and white photograph of soldier standing at a side-on angle with hands behind his back. With onscreen text: Lew Gazzard. Corporal Lew Gazzard from Camperdown, Victoria. Killed in Action on the Tobruk perimeter 1st May 1941.]
Lt Col Smith: Lou Gazzard, shot through the head in the heat and the dust of Tobruk in North Africa. His brother Ewan was a soldier too; Ewan died a year later. The chronicle of death and destruction continues.
And so to that other great theatre of war, the Pacific. Our own backyard really, here we lost thousands in battle and as Prisoners of War at Singapore and elsewhere in the ring of islands to our north.
[Black and white photograph of six soldiers in short-sleeved shirts. Three sit and three stand behind them. With onscreen text: John Gray. Gunner John Gray (centre rear) and mates from the 4th Anti Tank Regiment. Taken in Singapore as Prisoners of War by the Japanese.]
Lt Col Smith: This fellow here indicated, John Grey, was one of thousands of Prisoners of War. He was with the 4th anti-tank regiment and John Grey succumbed, like many, to the ill-treatment and starvation on the death railway in Burma and Thailand in 1943. By the grace of god and the sacrifices that our American allies made at the titanic battles at the Coral Sea and Midway, the Second World War scarcely touched our shores.
[Black and white photograph of five men in various military uniforms and one civilian alighting from an air force plane and walking across the tarmac. With onscreen text: American troops arrive in Melbourne. General MacArthur and US Troops from the 41st Infantry Division arrive in Melbourne March 1942.]
Lt Col Smith: Even so, the blood of Australians was spilled in places like Broome, Darwin and Sydney. The Pacific War, as the Americans call it, was a near-run thing for us – our most seasoned troops were far away fighting in the desert when the Japanese began sweeping southward. And they did have battle plans to target Australia, make no mistake.
[Colour flyer includes a colour photograph of a large banner set on poles in a park. With onscreen text: Defending Australia. Battle Honours of the 39th Battalion – a Militia unit with many men as young as 18 years who stopped the Japanese on the Kokoda Track.]
Lt Col Smith: Fortunately our young militiamen who previously had been part-time Army, that’s what militia means, fortunately our young militiamen from the 39th infantry battalion stopped the onslaught on the Kokoda track, as did others at Milne Bay in New Guinea. Again the unit war diary, which I had mentioned earlier in the context of World War I, is worth having a good look at when you’re looking at people from these battalions.
Here in the Pacific War, closer to home, we find Bob Bennett from Footscray; wrists bound with wire, bayonetted to death by the Japanese by the Tol plantation massacre in Rabaul in March of 1942.
Even near the end of the war, Australians continued to die in what many would call the fruitless campaigns in places like Borneo and Bougainville.
[Black and white photograph of a soldier’s head and shoulders, with onscreen text: Keith Brown. VX115892 Lieutenant Keith Brown from Portland, Victoria. Killed in Action Brunei Bay with the 2/32nd Infantry Battalion.]
Lt Col Smith: Keith Brown, a Portland school teacher, was one. He was killed in a sharp contact with a Japanese near Brunei Bay in 1945, only days before hostilities were completed. A photograph of he and his mates is attached to the Roll of Honour circular, which in question time we can talk about if you wish, but the Roll of Honour circular held by the Australian War Memorial also includes priceless gems like this, a photograph of this officer.
[Black and white photograph of the warship HMAS Brisbane docked in a harbour, with onscreen text: HMAS ‘Brisbane’.]
Lt Col Smith: At sea, the hazards were always present for the Royal Australian Navy. The story of the cruiser HMAS Sydney has already been mentioned today, and its story is all the more fresh in our minds as the mystery of the disappearance of that gallant vessel in late 1941 was at least in part solved two or three years ago.
[Sepia photograph of a close up head-and-shoulders shot of a young blonde marine, with onscreen text: Fred Lasslett PM1848 Leading Wireman Fred Lasslett HMAS ‘Perth’. Prisoner of War.]
Lt Col Smith: Fred Lasslett, he was luckier, he was a wire man – that’s Navy talk for electrician. Fred was a wire man from Footscray and he was on the Perth, another cruiser which was sunk in March of 1942. Lasslett survived that tragedy but spent over three years enduring unimaginable deprivations as a prisoner of the Japanese.
Now, the WWII nominal roll, there wouldn’t be many in this room who are not unaware of that either, the WWII nominal roll simply lists Fred with the other basic information, lists Fred as a POW, a prisoner of war, but there is so much more which should be found to really do Fred service and his sacrifice justice. I only found out a few days ago that Fred Lasslet had passed away about three weeks ago, here in Melbourne, Heidelberg.
Our merchant mariners – happily they have been mentioned, because so often we have this sort of forum and they’re never mentioned; let’s talk about them again: our merchant mariners also faced the elements and the enemy, with little recognition and even less compensation.
[Black and white photograph of five young men standing in civilian clothes on a boat, similar to a fishing boat. They are smiling with their arms are around each other’s shoulders. With onscreen text: Civilian sailors. Australian Merchant Navy seamen during World War Two.]
Lt Col Smith: One in eight British merchant seamen perished during the war, with thousands lost to the German U-boat menace, notably in the North Atlantic with trying to bring across the supplies from North America to beleaguered England. Some of these merchant mariners were literally boys. Now, happily for those in the Australian merchant marine service, the NAA, the National Archives of Australia, holdings of their associated records are to be readily found on microfilm, and they are very, very useful. Similarly, the British records are intact although most of them need to be examined in London.
Just a quick aside on the merchant navy. Uncle Joe might have been a merchant sailor in WWII and you don’t find him in the records held by the National Archives of Australia. That could well be that he signed on as a merchant sailor with another nation. Could have been Britain, in which case you could go to London and get his records there. But it could have been somewhere else: South Africa, Canada, in which case you wouldn’t find him.
[Black and white photograph of a young man in dungarees and cap leaning on what appears to be the bow of a ship. With onscreen text: Noel Smith. Noel Smith from Adelaide, South Australia. Joined the Australian Merchant Navy in World War Two at age 14 years.]
Lt Col Smith: Another merchant mariner, Noel Smith, now living in South Australia, near Adelaide. He also was a merchant sailor. He survived the war, obviously, and he had joined up at the age of 14 years. Another chap, Percy Anderson, merchant sailor, he wasn’t so lucky. His NAA records reveal that he died at sea in 1944 on a vessel called the Coolarna but like many merchant mariners, Percy Anderson is not recognised by either the Australian War Memorial or the Commonwealth War Graves Commission. At the end of it all, Germany, fascist Italy, Japan, Vichy French: all finally vanquished.
[Sepia photograph of hundreds of soldiers marching in Bourke Street, Melbourne. With onscreen text: Diggers marching off to war. Diggers from the first Australian Imperial Force contingent to the Middle East march through Melbourne in 1940. Over 40,000 Australian service personnel died in World War Two.]
Lt Col Smith: Exhausted peoples everywhere counted the awful cost: 60 million dead. Now, I won’t repeat that list of WWI resources, which I went over some minutes ago, but most of them are also relevant to your research of WWII service personnel. But don’t forget, in WWII, we had a couple of newcomers on the scene.
I’ve already mentioned the merchant navy and, although they were around in WWI, they didn’t have nearly the same involvement, operational involvement, as they did in WWII.
Now, the second player, of course, no prize for guessing, is the Royal Australian Airforce, which was formally brought into existence in September of 1921. Prior to that, our aviators in WWI had been members of the Australian Flying Corps and, therefore, were by definition soldiers and not air men.
As for new resources, we can’t ignore the aforementioned WWII nominal roll; despite the thousands of errors and emissions therein it’s still a fine starting point. Of course, most personal dossiers are still held hard-copy by NAA in Canberra. I’m saying ‘most’ as there are many exceptions. Some, for instance, are still held at CARO, the Central Army Records Office or the service offices of the navy and the air force in Canberra.
As I intimated before, beware of those WWII veterans who served at other times, either before or after the 1939–45 conflict and therefore may have amalgamated dossiers.
And does the story stop there? No, of course not. Australians have been going to war with light hearts and heads held high since 1860. The bitter fight against the Maori in the New Zealand Wars of the 1860s was our first real taste of warfare facing an organised, fierce and determined foe.
[Painting depicts a sailing ship with the British flag flying from it. In the foreground are two row boats full of men in red coats. Two more sailing ships are in the background and behind them a coastline. With onscreen text: The New Zealand Wars. The ‘Victoria’ left Melbourne with the Victorian Naval Brigade sailors and Redcoasts to fight the Maori in April 1860.]
Lt Col Smith: On this occasion in 1860 we sent the warship Victoria from Melbourne with redcoats and mobilised naval brigade men from Melbourne aboard. Whose task it was, these naval brigade men, if you see that term anywhere, they were sailors but they were a bit like marines in a way. They were sailors whose role ultimately was to fight ashore, and that’s what these lads did when they went to New Zealand in 1860, together with the redcoats which, of course, were garrisoned in Australia at the time.
[Painting of a redcoat soldier in full uniform and holding a horn. With onscreen text: Redcoats in Australia 1788-1870. A British Redcoat from the 40th Regiment of Foot circa 1850. The 40th were involved in subduing the revolt at the Eureka Stockade.]
Lt Col Smith: Now, as an aside, I really should make some comment on the redcoats. However, to really provide meaningful comment on researching this important aspect of our military heritage which started, as has already been mentioned, in 1788. And until 1870 it’s really beyond the scope of this session, yet, rest assured, there is plenty of material for study both here in Australia, particularly through the Australian Joint Copying Project, which is available through the State Library here in Melbourne, and the National Archives in London, at Kew, just out of London.
Then there’s Sudan, with our soldiers fighting the dervishes after the death of Gordon and the fall of Khartoum.
[Painting of a uniformed officer standing in foreground, leaning lightly with one hand on his sword. He wears a red jacket adorned with gold braid. He has a white sash, gloves and belt and dark trousers and boots. He wears a tall white helmet with gold braid chin strap. On the grass in the background soldiers march on parade and buildings are seen faintly in the background. With onscreen text: Fighting the Dervishes. An officer of the NSW Contingent to the Sudan in 1885.]
Lt Col Smith: This was our first foray overseas, apart from New Zealand, to support Great Britain using, as we usually do, volunteers. Now, most personnel records for the men who sailed with these contingents have been digitised by the Australian War Memorial and original medal rolls are held in London. But you find scraps of bits and pieces elsewhere, as well. We’ve already heard from the Public Record Office Victoria this morning, and you may be surprised to know that they also have a good deal of material on this conflict back in 1885 in the Sudan. Fifteen years later, the Boxer Rebellion in China: here Australians fought, shoulder to shoulder, with 15 other nations in contingents dispatched from Sydney, from Melbourne and from Adelaide.
[Black and white photograph of James McAllister seated in a rickshaw. He is dressed in a large coat and a fur hat. The rickshaw is being pulled by a Chinese man dressed in padded coat, soft peakless cap and flat shoes. With onscreen text: Boxer Rebellion 1900-1901. Able Seaman James McAllister from Monbulk, Victoria. Boxer Rebellion, China 1900.]
Lt Col Smith: Here we see Able Seaman James McAllister from Monbulk, here in Victoria. He clearly has some free time for sightseeing, unlike Albert Gibbs, also from Melbourne, who wasn’t nearly as fortunate as James here. His muster records – Albert Gibbs – his muster records are held on microfilm here in Melbourne with NAA and they show that young Albert, he’s only about 17 from memory, he was a servant, a manservant they called them, working for a navy officer – they showed that Albert succumbed to sickness in this strange, faraway land, China in 1901. Rarely have these men from the Boxer Rebellion contingent been mourned or commemorated.
[Advertisement for ‘the featherbed soldiers’ depicts an Australian soldier astride a truncated horse. He holds the reins in one hand and a pipe in the other. With onscreen text: Boer War 1899 – 1902. A trooper from the New South Wales Lancers – the First to Fight.]
Lt Col Smith: Not to forget the Boer War in Southern Africa between 1899 and 1902. All of these conflicts, which I’m glossing over, claimed their share of Australian flesh and blood. All of these conflicts have their elusive Diggers.
Tom Gates from Castlemaine. He’d sailed from Sydney some years earlier in 1885 to fight the dervishes in Sudan. Tom fought again in the Boer War, take on the point that I’ve made a couple of times, don’t just focus on a fellow serving in a particular conflict; so very often you’ll find that a chap served in more than one conflict and, therefore, there’s more than one area for you to look for.
[Black and white drawing of a mounted Australian Lighthorseman. The horse is in distress with its head thrown up and ears back. The rider clutches his chest with a gloved hand and his glazed eyes stare sightlessly at the ground. With onscreen text: Wounded in Action. About 25,000 Australians fought in the Boer War.]
Lt Col Smith: In the Boer War, then, the proud-spirited, the independent, the laconic, the often reckless Digger was always there. In the veldt, the prairie, the veldt of South Africa they excelled and displayed a real independence. Many would call it larrikinism. Some, like Breaker Morant, took it too far and I am sick of hearing about Breaker Morant. He’s been in the news a couple of weeks ago, if people haven’t noticed. Good old Breaker, he took it too far. Having served, but his story is quite relevant to what I’m about to say, having served with a South Australian contingent, one raised in South Australia before Federation, Morant then chose to serve on, listen to this, serve on with a locally raised, irregular unit called the Bushveldt Carbineers. We all know what happened to Morant, of course, but the point I’d like to make is that this was an irregular unit. It was one which was raised in South Africa and all of the units which were raised in South Africa, and there would have been 40 to 50 of them, they were crawling with Australians like Morant.